evalhyd::evald
- evald(q_obs, q_prd, metrics, q_thr=NULL, events=NULL, transform=NULL, exponent=NULL, epsilon=NULL, t_msk=NULL, bootstrap=NULL, dts=NULL, seed=NULL, diagnostics=NULL)
Function to evaluate deterministic streamflow predictions.
- Parameters
- q_obs
A numeric vector (or numeric matrix) of streamflow observations. Time steps with missing observations must be assigned
NA
values. Those time steps will be ignored both in the observations and in the predictions before the metrics are computed. Observations and predictions must feature the same number of dimensions. shape: (time,) or (1, time)- q_prd
A numeric vector (or numeric matrix) of streamflow prediction. Time steps with missing predictions must be assigned
NA
values. Those time steps will be ignored both in the observations and in the predictions before the metrics are computed. Observations and predictions must feature the same number of dimensions. shape: (time,) or (series, time)- metrics
A string vector of evaluation metrics to be computed. shape: (metrics,)
See also
- q_thr, optional
A numeric vector (or numeric matrix) of streamflow thresholds to consider for the metrics assessing the prediction of exceedance events. If the number of thresholds differs across series,
NA
can be set as threshold for those sites with fewer thresholds. Predictions and thresholds must feature the same number of dimensions, and the same number of series. shape: (thresholds,) or (series, thresholds)- events, optional
A string specifying the type of streamflow events to consider for threshold exceedance-based metrics. It can either be set as
"high"
when flooding conditions/high flow events are evaluated (i.e. event occurring when streamflow goes above threshold) or as"low"
when drought conditions/low flow events are evaluated (i.e. event occurring when streamflow goes below threshold). It must be provided if q_thr is provided.- transform, optional
A string specifying the transformation to apply to both streamflow observations and predictions prior to the calculation of the metrics.
See also
- exponent, optional
A numeric scalar specifying the value of the exponent n to use when the transform is the power function. If not provided (or set to a value of 1), the streamflow observations and predictions remain untransformed.
- epsilon, optional
A numeric scalar specifying the value of the small constant ε to add to both the streamflow observations and predictions prior to the calculation of the metrics when the transform is the reciprocal function, the natural logarithm, or the power function with a negative exponent (since none are defined for 0). If not provided, one hundredth of the mean of the streamflow observations is used as value for epsilon, as recommended by Pushpalatha et al. (2012).
- t_msk, optional
A logical array of mask(s) to use to temporally subset of the whole streamflow time series (where
TRUE
/FALSE
is used for the time steps to include/discard in the subset). shape: (series, subsets, time)Warning
The use of this parameter will raise a warning regarding a coerced object from ‘logical’ to ‘double’. This is a known issue (see #2) that does not impact on the numerical validity of the results obtained. However, until this issue is resolved, the user is warned that an unnecessary copy of the provided mask is made to comply with the expected data type.
See also
- bootstrap, optional
A list providing the values for the parameters of the bootstrapping method used to estimate the sampling uncertainty in the evaluation of the predictions. It takes three parameters:
"n_samples"
the number of random samples,"len_samples"
the length of one sample in number of years, and"summary"
the statistics to return to characterise the sampling distribution. If not provided, no bootstrapping is performed. If provided, dts must also be provided.Parameter example:
bootstrap=list(n_samples=100, len_sample=10, summary=0)
See also
- dts, optional
A string vector of corresponding dates and times for the temporal dimension of the streamflow observations and predictions. The date and time must be specified in a string following the ISO 8601-1:2019 standard, i.e. “YYYY-MM-DD hh:mm:ss” (e.g. the 21st of May 2007 at 4 in the afternoon is “2007-05-21 16:00:00”). If provided, it is only used if bootstrap is also provided. shape: (time,)
- seed, optional
An integer value for the seed used by random generators. This parameter guarantees the reproducibility of the metric values between calls.
- diagnostics, optional
A string vector of evaluation diagnostics to be computed. shape: (diagnostics,)
See also
- Returns
A list of numeric arrays containing evaluation metrics computed in the same order as given in metrics, followed by evaluation diagnostics in the same order as given in diagnostics. shape: [(series, subsets, samples, {components}), …]
- Examples
> obs <- c(4.7, 4.3, 5.5, 2.7, 4.1) > prd <- c(5.3, 4.2, 5.7, 2.3, 3.1) > library(evalhyd) > evalhyd::evald(obs, prd, c("NSE")) [[1]] , , 1 [,1] [1,] 0.6254771
> obs <- rbind( + c(4.7, 4.3, 5.5, 2.7, 4.1) + ) > prd <- rbind( + c(5.3, 4.2, 5.7, 2.3, 3.1), + c(4.3, 4.2, 4.7, 4.3, 3.3), + c(5.3, 5.2, 5.7, 2.3, 3.9) + ) > evalhyd::evald(obs, prd, c("NSE")) [[1]] , , 1 [,1] [1,] 0.62547710 [2,] 0.04341603 [3,] 0.66364504
> evalhyd::evald(obs, prd, c("NSE"), transform="sqrt") [[1]] , , 1 [,1] [1,] 0.603380063 [2,] -0.006810629 [3,] 0.697280893
> evalhyd::evald(obs, prd, c("NSE"), transform="log", epsilon=.5) [[1]] , , 1 [,1] [1,] 0.58134179 [2,] -0.04589215 [3,] 0.71432742
> evalhyd::evald(obs, prd, c("NSE"), transform="pow", exponent=.8) [[1]] , , 1 [,1] [1,] 0.61757466 [2,] 0.02342582 [3,] 0.67871023